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14766388005_021e288b59_oThe Genetics Journal Club for this month features the article Molecular Support for Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning that was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine.  The article describes boy-girl twins whose maternal DNA was identical, and who share paternal DNA as with genetic siblings.  The authors propose that sesquizygosis is a newly identified and rare third type of twinning along with monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins .   The article describes the authors' research to identify other pairs of sesquizygotic twins, a case report regarding this set of twins who are now four years old, and theories regarding how sesquizygosis occurs.

Explore additional genetics articles by searching Himmelfarb Library's PubMed which provides direct links to articles in our online collections.


Image citation: Anonymous (1922).  Single ovum twins [online image] from Plass, E.D. (1922). Obstetrics for nurses.  New York: Appleton and Company.

bookshelfIt’s easy to think of fair use as the domain of authors. But as faculty face increasing pressure to provide students with cost-free course materials, they often turn to course reserves as an inexpensive alternative to requiring students to purchase costly scholarly materials. Himmelfarb's librarians are responsible for advising faculty on best practices related to copyright and fair use for both print and electronic course reserves.  Himmelfarb's librarians can help to ensure that educational content distribution in your courses adheres to the spirit of fair use.

In recent years, the growth of electronic course reserves has created new challenges related to observing copyright. As we see an increasing shift towards electronic reserves, here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • Reserve materials should only be made available for faculty and students users while a course is currently being taught.  Electronic reserve materials must be promptly taken down after a course is no longer in session.
  • Electronic course reserves that are reactivated in future semesters may require additional copyright permissions. Permissions policies may be changed by publishers or copyright holders.  Use of an excerpt in a past course reserve does not guarantee use in future semesters.
  • Electronic course reserves require the same permissions as printed coursepacks. Rights must be secured for materials that cannot be utilized under fair use.
  • When using materials for electronic course reserves under fair use, remember to include copyright notices where necessary and include citations to the original material. Also caution users against further electronic distribution.
  • Under fair use criteria, electronic course reserve materials should be limited to small excerpts.  General guidelines include:
    • Book selections for works under copyright should not exceed 10% of the total page count of the book.
    • When using journal articles, you should not use more than two articles from any issue of a publication.
    • Unpublished materials require written permissions for items that are not the intellectual property of the instructor.
    • These limits are cumulative over the course of a semester, so taking down materials and adding new materials from the same source is a violation of fair use.
  • Access to electronic course reserves should be restricted by using passwords or other forms of authentication to help avoid copyright violations.

For the vast majority of cases, observing fair use guidelines should allow faculty users to include desired materials in electronic course reserves.  But when permissions are denied, Himmelfarb Librarians can help you in the following ways:

  • Help locate an excerpt in an alternate source. Materials from collections or anthologies can often be found in alternate sources with different copyright restrictions.
  • Place a hard copy of the item from which the material was excerpted on reserve.
  • Recommend alternate materials.

Despite its complexities, fair use ultimately presents unique opportunities for the distribution of educational content.  When used effectively, fair use standards can help to support electronic course reserves that provide students with the opportunity to obtain cost-free course materials. Consequently, adhering to best practices related to fair use and copyright standards can help to preserve educational models that foster the distribution of content for educational purposes.

For further information on Fair Use and Electronic Course Reserves, see Electronic Reserve Guidelines from the Copyright Clearance Center.


scanA new Scannx book scanner is available at Himmelfarb Library, located right by the Circulation Desk and Writing Center.
Along with placing flat item documents on the flat bed, the Scannx Book ScanCenter allows dual sided sheet-feed scanning of documents in black & white, color, and greyscale which can then be saved in a variety of formats (JPG, PDF, Searchable PDF, Word) to Gmail, Google Drive, smartphones (via QR Codes), USB drives and even WEPA.
For additional information or questions please contact John Lopez at
Image citation: Youngson, N. (No date). Highway sign scan image. Retrieved from:

A_water_droplet_splashTen days ago, Himmelfarb Library's B1 Level was flooded and some of our print collections were damaged. Since then, the stacks area on the B1 Level has been closed as the area is cleaned and we repair and recover as many books as possible.

The B1 Level stacks will remain closed for the next several weeks and we are making plans to re-open the last week of February or the first week of March. We are also beginning to make plans to replace damaged materials so that we can continue to meet your health sciences information needs.

1200px-US-NLM-PubMed-Logo.svgThe Full-Text @ Himmelfarb links in PubMed will not function correctly from 8 PM on Friday, February 8 through about 8 PM on Saturday, February 9 due to system maintenance.  During this outage, please use the Find It @ Himmelfarb links to connect to full-text articles.  If you have any questions, please ask us!

bestof2018DynaMed Plus' editorial team systematically reviews newly published health sciences literature in order to ensure that the best available evidence is integrated into DynaMed Plus articles.  Last year, the DynaMed team reviewed more than 20,000 articles and added used information from more than 9,000 of these articles to update articles in DynaMed Plus.  In their 2018 Year in Review, DynaMed's editorial team present the five most important articles from 2018:
  1. Antihypertensive treatment for low-risk patients with mild hypertension does not appear to be beneficial.  Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, S., Stevens, R., Martin, U., Mant, J., Hobbs, F. R., & McManus, R. J. (2018). Benefits and Harms of Antihypertensive Treatment in Low-Risk Patients With Mild Hypertension. JAMA internal medicine, 178(12), 1626-1634.
  2. Aspirin for primary prevention does not reduce vascular events in adults aged ≥ 70 years and may increase rates of death and major bleeding.   McNeil, J. J., Wolfe, R., Woods, R. L., Tonkin, A. M., Donnan, G. A., Nelson, M. R., ... & Shah, R. C. (2018). Effect of aspirin on cardiovascular events and bleeding in the healthy elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(16), 1509-1518.
  3. Vitamin D plus calcium supplementation might not reduce the risk of hip fracture in unselected community-dwelling adults > 50 years old.  Zhao, J. G., Zeng, X. T., Wang, J., & Liu, L. (2017). Association between calcium or vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jama, 318(24), 2466-2482.
  4. Could elective inductions at 39 weeks in low-risk nulliparous women help neonates ARRIVE more quickly and more safely?  Grobman, W. A., Rice, M. M., Reddy, U. M., Tita, A. T., Silver, R. M., Mallett, G., ... & Rouse, D. J. (2018). Labor induction versus expectant management in low-risk nulliparous women. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(6), 513-523.
  5. As-needed budesonide/formoterol for mild persistent asthma may prevent serious exacerbations as well as twice-daily maintenance budesonide.   Bateman, E. D., Reddel, H. K., O’byrne, P. M., Barnes, P. J., Zhong, N., Keen, C., ... & FitzGerald, J. M. (2018). As-needed budesonide–formoterol versus maintenance budesonide in mild asthma. New England Journal of Medicine, 378(20), 1877-1887.

A_water_droplet_splashWe're sorry to share the news that the B1 Level of the library was flooded on Friday and Saturday.   The flood occurred in the book stacks area and some books were damaged.  Here's what you need to know:

  1. Himmelfarb Library's B1 Level is closed for repairs and recovery of as many books as possible.  We anticipate this closure will last about a week and will provide additional information as we have it.
  2. Some books were damaged but we did not lose the entire collection.  We're in the process of drying and cleaning all books possible, and will begin making plans for replacing items.
  3. We want to say THANK YOU to the Himmelfarb users who reported the incidents.  The damage would have been much worse if we hadn't heard from you and we greatly appreciate you letting us know.  If you're having any issues with accessing materials - from broken links to burst pipes - we want to hear about it right away so that we can get to work on the issues.

2/7 Update:  Cleaning and painting of the affected area will begin tomorrow and extend into next week.  The B1/Terrace Level will remain closed at least through all of next week.


Image citation: Peterson, L. (2010). Splash! [online image].  Retrieved from:

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